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Conjunctions Ingilis Dili 


Conjunctions are used to express a connection between words. The most familiar conjunctions are and, but, and or: Paul and David cold and wet tired but happy slowly but surely tea or coffee hot or cold They can also connect longer units: Paul plays football and David plays chess. I play tennis but I don’t play well. We can eat now or we can wait till later. There are two types of conjunctions. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (or simply COORDINATORS) connect elements of ‘equal’ syntactic status: Paul and David I play tennis…

Prepositions Ingilis Dili 


Prepositions cannot be distinguished by any formal features. A list of prepositions will illustrate this point: across, after, at, before, by, during, from, in, into, of, on, to, under, with, without We can, say, however, that prepositions typically come before a noun: across town after class at home before Tuesday by Shakespeare for lunch in London on fire to school with pleasure The noun does not necessarily come immediately after the preposition, however, since determiners and adjectives can intervene: after the storm on white horses under the old regime Whether…

Additives, Exclusives, and Particularizers Ingilis Dili 

Additives, Exclusives, and Particularizers

Additives “add” two or more items together, emphasizing that they are all to be considered equal: [1] Lynn’s prewar success had been as a light historical novelist; he employed similar fanciful ideas in his war novels […] Joseph Hocking’s war novels are also dominated by romance and adventure. [2] German firms have an existing advantage as a greater number of their managers have technical or engineering degrees. Japanese managers, too, have technical qualifications of a high order. In [1], the adverb also points to the similarities between the war novels…

Circumstantial Adverbs Ingilis Dili 

Circumstantial Adverbs

Many adverbs convey information about the manner, time, or place of an event or action. MANNER adverbs tell us how an action is or should be performed: She sang loudly in the bath The sky quickly grew dark They whispered softly I had to run fast to catch the bus TIME adverbs denote not only specific times but also frequency: I’ll be checking out tomorrow Give it back, now! John rarely rings any more I watch television sometimes And finally, PLACE adverbs indicate where: Put the box there, on the…

Adverbs and Adjectives Ingilis Dili 

Adverbs and Adjectives

Adverbs and adjectives have important characteristics in common — in particular their gradability, and the fact that they have comparative and superlative forms. However, an important distinguishing feature is that adverbs do not modify nouns, either attributively or predicatively: Adjective Adverb David is a happy child *David is a happily child David is happy *David is happily The following words, together with their comparative and superlative forms, can be both adverbs and adjectives: early, far, fast, hard, late The following sentences illustrate the two uses of early: Adjective Adverb I’ll…

Adverbs Ingilis Dili 


Adverbs are used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb: [1] Mary sings beautifully [2] David is extremely clever [3] This car goes incredibly fast In [1], the adverb beautifully tells us how Mary sings. In [2], extremely tells us the degree to which David is clever. Finally, in [3], the adverb incredibly tells us how fast the car goes. Before discussing the meaning of adverbs, however, we will identify some of their formal characteristics. Formal Characteristics of Adverbs From our examples above, you can see that many…

The Ordering of Adjectives Ingilis Dili 

The Ordering of Adjectives

When two or more adjectives come before a noun, their relative order is fixed to a certain degree. This means, for instance, that while complex mathematical studies is grammatically acceptable, mathematical complex studies is less so. Similarly: a huge red bomber ~*a red huge bomber a long narrow road ~*a narrow long road the lovely little black Japanese box ~*the Japanese black little lovely box Here we will discuss some of the most common sequences which occur, though these should not be seen as ordering rules. Counter examples can often…

Participial Adjectives Ingilis Dili 

Participial Adjectives

We saw in an earlier section that many adjectives can be identified by their endings. Another major subclass of adjectives can also be formally distinguished by endings, this time by -ed or -ing endings: –ed form computerized, determined, excited, misunderstood, renowned, self-centred, talented, unknown –ing form annoying, exasperating, frightening, gratifying, misleading, thrilling, time-consuming, worrying Remember that some -ed forms, such as misunderstood and unknown, do not end in -ed at all. This is simply a cover term for this form. Adjectives with -ed or -ing endings are known as PARTICIPIAL…

Adjectives and Nouns Ingilis Dili 

Adjectives and Nouns

We have seen that attributive adjectives occur before a noun which they modify, for example, red in red car. We need to distinguish these clearly from nouns which occur in the same position, and fulfil the same syntactic function. Consider the following: rally car saloon car family car Here, the first word modifies the second, that is, it tells us something further about the car. For example, a rally car is a car which is driven in rallies. These modifiers occur in the same position as red in the example…

Nominal Adjectives Ingilis Dili 

Nominal Adjectives

Certain adjectives are used to denote a class by describing one of the attributes of the class. For example, the poor denotes a class of people who share a similar financial status. Other nominal adjectives are: the old the sick the wealthy the blind the innocent A major subclass of nominal adjectives refers to nationalities: the French the British the Japanese However, not all nationalities have corresponding nominal adjectives. Many of them are denoted by plural, proper nouns: the Germans the Russians the Americans the Poles Nominal adjectives do not…

Modal fellər Ingilis Dili 

Modal fellər

Modal fellərdən məsdər vasitəsilə göstərilən hərəkətə danışanın münasibətini bildirmək üçün istifadə olunur. Onlar məsdər vasitəsilə ifadə olunan hərəkətin nə qədər mümkün, qeyri-mümkün, ehtimal olunan, az ehtimal olunan, məcburi, lazımi, məsləhətli, şübhəli, qeyri-dəqiq və s. olduğunu bildirir. Modal fellər bunlardır: can (could), may (might), must, should, ought to, need, to be able to, have to və s. Can və Could Can bir şəxsin qabil olduğu, bacardığı hərəkəti bildirir. Can indiki zamanda, could isə keçmiş zamanda işlənir. Məs: Mən üzməyi bacarıram – I can swim. Sual cümlələrini qurarkən can və ya could mübtədadan əvvəl…

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