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Adverbs and Adjectives Ingilis Dili 

Adverbs and Adjectives

Adverbs and adjectives have important characteristics in common — in particular their gradability, and the fact that they have comparative and superlative forms. However, an important distinguishing feature is that adverbs do not modify nouns, either attributively or predicatively: Adjective Adverb David is a happy child *David is a happily child David is happy *David is happily The following words, together with their comparative and superlative forms, can be both adverbs and adjectives: early, far, fast, hard, late The following sentences illustrate the two uses of early: Adjective Adverb I’ll…

The Ordering of Adjectives Ingilis Dili 

The Ordering of Adjectives

When two or more adjectives come before a noun, their relative order is fixed to a certain degree. This means, for instance, that while complex mathematical studies is grammatically acceptable, mathematical complex studies is less so. Similarly: a huge red bomber ~*a red huge bomber a long narrow road ~*a narrow long road the lovely little black Japanese box ~*the Japanese black little lovely box Here we will discuss some of the most common sequences which occur, though these should not be seen as ordering rules. Counter examples can often…

Participial Adjectives Ingilis Dili 

Participial Adjectives

We saw in an earlier section that many adjectives can be identified by their endings. Another major subclass of adjectives can also be formally distinguished by endings, this time by -ed or -ing endings: –ed form computerized, determined, excited, misunderstood, renowned, self-centred, talented, unknown –ing form annoying, exasperating, frightening, gratifying, misleading, thrilling, time-consuming, worrying Remember that some -ed forms, such as misunderstood and unknown, do not end in -ed at all. This is simply a cover term for this form. Adjectives with -ed or -ing endings are known as PARTICIPIAL…

Adjectives and Nouns Ingilis Dili 

Adjectives and Nouns

We have seen that attributive adjectives occur before a noun which they modify, for example, red in red car. We need to distinguish these clearly from nouns which occur in the same position, and fulfil the same syntactic function. Consider the following: rally car saloon car family car Here, the first word modifies the second, that is, it tells us something further about the car. For example, a rally car is a car which is driven in rallies. These modifiers occur in the same position as red in the example…

Stative and Dynamic Adjectives Ingilis Dili 

Stative and Dynamic Adjectives

As their name suggests, STATIVE adjectives denote a state or condition, which may generally be considered permanent, such as big, red, small. Stative adjectives cannot normally be used in imperative constructions: *Be big/red/small Further, they cannot normally be used in progressive constructions: *He is being big/red/small In contrast, DYNAMIC adjectives denote attributes which are, to some extent at least, under the control of the one who possesses them. For instance, brave denotes an attribute which may not always be in evidence (unlike red, for example), but which may be called…

Inherent and Non-inherent Adjectives Ingilis Dili 

Inherent and Non-inherent Adjectives

Most attributive adjectives denote some attribute of the noun which they modify. For instance, the phrase a red car may be said to denote a car which is red. In fact most adjective-noun sequences such as this can be loosely reformulated in a similar way: an old man ~a man who is old difficult questions ~questions which are difficult round glasses ~glasses which are round This applies equally to postpositive adjectives: something understood   ~something which is understood the people responsible   ~the people who are responsible In each case the adjective…

Attributive and Predicative Adjectives Ingilis Dili 

Attributive and Predicative Adjectives

Most adjectives can occur both before and after a noun: the blue sea ~ the sea is blue the old man ~ the man is old happy children ~ the children are happy Adjectives in the first position – before the noun – are called ATTRIBUTIVE adjectives. Those in the second position – after the noun – are called PREDICATIVE adjectives. Notice that predicative adjectives do not occur immediately after the noun. Instead, they follow a verb. Sometimes an adjective does occur immediately after a noun, especially in certain institutionalised…

Adjectives Ingilis Dili 


Adjectives can be identified using a number of formal criteria. However, we may begin by saying that they typically describe an attribute of a noun: cold weather large windows violent storms Some adjectives can be identified by their endings. Typical adjective endings include: -able/-ible achievable, capable, illegible, remarkable –al biographical, functional, internal, logical -ful beautiful, careful, grateful, harmful -ic cubic, manic, rustic, terrific -ive attractive, dismissive, inventive, persuasive -less breathless, careless, groundless, restless -ous courageous, dangerous, disastrous, fabulous However, a large number of very common adjectives cannot be identified in…

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